What Are the Largest Bankruptcies?

Many people find themselves wondering what the largest bankruptcies in history are. Though some may not realize it, bankruptcy is common in today’s world. In many cases, persons or companies go into bankruptcy with hopes of becoming new, better versions of themselves and gathering their resources to make that happen. Here we will discuss some of the largest bankruptcies.

1. Lehman Brothers

Lehman Brothers was a global investment bank headquartered in New York City, New York. Lehman Brothers were best known for its role in the financial crisis of 2008. It had approximately 6,800 employees, making it the fourth-largest investment bank in the world. Lehman Brothers have survived previous economic crises and periods of corporate decline. Lehman Brothers ‘ success was due in part to its unusual business model, which made it a hybrid of a commercial bank and investment bank. Lehman Brothers provide full-service brokerage, investment banking, and trading. Its other main business lines were asset management, private equity (investing in businesses), and treasury services. At the time of bankruptcy, Lehman Brothers employed approximately 3,500 employees in New York City alone.

2. Washington Mutual

Washington Mutual (WM) was once the most significant savings and loan association in the United States. It was based in Seattle, Washington, and had employed over 6,300 people at its peak. In 2008, due to poor management and an excess of bad debt, Washington Mutual was taken over by the government’s FDIC (Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation). The FDIC estimated that 1.3 million customers had been affected by this turn of events. At the time of bankruptcy, Washington Mutual had $307 billion in assets and 24,000 employees.

What Are the Largest Bankruptcies?

3. Worldcom Inc

Worldcom Inc was once the second largest long-distance provider in the United States and had about 48,000 employees at the time of bankruptcy. WorldCom used to be a subsidiary of MCI (a telecommunications company). The name “MCI Worldcom” was adopted when the two companies merged in 1998. As a result of this merger, many feared that one company would dominate the US telecommunications industry.WorldCom faced a large lawsuit for overstating its profits and hiding billions of dollars in debt. This ultimately led to its bankruptcy filing. MCI Worldcom emerged from bankruptcy in 2003 after paying back $7 billion to creditors.

4. General Motors

General Motors was America’s largest automobile maker. The company had employed over 1,000,000 members of the United Auto Workers Union and had built over 10 million vehicles. During the 1970s and 1980s, General Motors was forced to deal with several financial problems, such as costly labor contracts. This resulted in poor management decisions, such as falling sales and industrial relations. As a result of these poor management decisions and its subsequent decline, General Motors filed for bankruptcy in 2009. By that time, General Motors had approximately 63,000 employees.

5. CIT Group

CIT Group was a conglomerate of companies. It was headquartered in New York City and employed about 63,000 persons. CIT Group had agreed to take over R.H. Donnelley & Sons Company, another bankrupt company, for $1 billion, making the transaction the largest leveraged buyout since 2005. By 2009, CIT Group had been ranked 109 on the Fortune 500 list. It specializes in lending for small and medium businesses. CIT Group had once employed over 100,000 persons. At the time of bankruptcy, CIT Group had about 39,000 employees and $70 billion in assets (including R.H. Donnelley).

What Are the Largest Bankruptcies?

6. Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E)

Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG&E) is an energy provider based in California. PG&E had employed over 14,000 persons at the time of bankruptcy. At that point, it was the largest bankruptcy affecting one particular state. During PG&E’s bankruptcy proceedings, PG&E’s assets were transferred to a new corporation known as California PG&E Corporation. This allowed customers to continue receiving electricity without interruption.

7. Enron

Enron was a multinational conglomerate that was composed of many business units. At its peak, Enron employed over 23,000 persons. Enron had many businesses that included natural gas and energy trading, and it also had a customer-loyalty program called the Enron Corporation Network (ECN). Enron Corporation Network gave the company an advantage in customer acquisition by offering special discounts on telecommunications services. Enron Corporation Network used to transfer confidential information from third parties such as suppliers and customers to the company’s top management without their knowledge. Eventually, Enron Corporation Network was later found to be fraudulent, resulting in Enron’s bankruptcy. This left thousands of employees jobless and many customers without service.

8. Conseco

Conseco was an American insurance company. It had grown from a small business into a multinational corporation that sold insurance, investments, banking services, and consumer health care products. At the time of bankruptcy, Conseco had over 277,000 employees and more than $25 billion in assets. The company’s claim of health insurance fraud by some employees led to its bankruptcy filing in 2001.

The initial problem faced by these large companies was excess debt, which led to a lack of capital, too much debt, and a loss of credibility for investors. Each of these companies faced a decline in sales from the market or a reduction in the company’s core business lines. In addition to poor management, these companies also faced challenges such as unfriendly regulatory agencies, poor government relations, and a harsh corporate culture that made it difficult for them to recover.

What Are the Functions of Capital?

Many people are not aware of the functions and importance of capital. Capital can be defined as the money, property, and resources necessary for business or economic operations. Industries require capital to initiate production, Individuals invest their money in businesses to earn a return on their investments. Capital is also what allows us to equip ourselves with tools that will help us develop our talents over a duration of time.

Functions of Capital

Economic Development

Capital is necessary for economic development because a country cannot progress without it. Economic development means the nation becomes more prosperous, and individuals benefit from a higher standard of living. The government helps stimulate economic development by investing in public infrastructure. Government investment in capital, such as roads and schools, allows businesses to locate in areas with more favorable conditions.

Investment in Human Capital

Capital is also used to develop human capital, or individuals’ talents and productivity. Education, vocational training, and health care are examples of investments in human capital.

Incentive for Productivity

Capital is an incentive to be productive because people want to earn additional income to save or invest in their future. These funds can be used to secure a home and provide a better lifestyle for the individual and his family.

Innovation

Capital is also an incentive to innovate. New products and services are developed to increase sales, expand markets, and meet consumer needs. Capital investing or using capital to develop new products and services allows the nation to be innovative. It also allows businesses to expand their markets and meet consumer needs.

What Are the Functions of Capital?

Social Mobility

Capital provides the opportunity for social mobility by allowing individuals to move up the social or economic ladder through education, job training, and entrepreneurial activities. Social mobility means previously poor people can work hard to improve their financial situation.

Political Stability

Capital is necessary for political stability because a government cannot maintain control over states and other regions without it. Political stability means that individuals want to live in a state where they can freely engage in commerce, employ and pay taxes, and receive services.

Social Welfare

Capital is necessary for social welfare because the nation’s governments must provide healthy food and shelter for its citizens. Provision of these necessities requires capital resources.

Infrastructure

Capital is necessary for government investment in infrastructure or public structures. Such investments include transportation and communications systems or the facilities needed to supply water and electricity.

Consumers

Capital is necessary for consumers because they need products and services, like transportation, food, housing, health care, communication systems, and entertainment. Consumers want the world’s technology to improve their standard of living.

Entrepreneurship

Capital is necessary to start a business and provide jobs for others and can be used to purchase tools, equipment, or property. Entrepreneurs use it to develop their business talents through innovation and hard work. Capital is an incentive for entrepreneurship because it allows people to use their talents to develop new products and services.

Privatization

For officials to sell some of the nation’s state-owned industries to private investors and managers, capital is necessary. This process is called privatization. Privatization is a means for governments to reduce their financial commitments and simplify bureaucratic processes.

What Are the Functions of Capital?

Social Security

Capital is necessary for social security because it is an investment in individuals’ future. Social security gives people retirement benefits based on their contributions to the nation’s economy over many years of paid employment. People who elect governments will be interested in the programs and policies that protect them from old age.

Taxes

Capital is necessary for governments to collect taxes or revenue based on income, property, and sales. Taxes provide the revenues needed to fund government operations.

Incentives for Productivity

Capital is an incentive to be productive because people want to earn additional income to save or invest in their future. Such funds can be used to purchase homes and provide a better lifestyle for individuals and their families.

Education

Capital is an incentive for education because it allows people to learn and improve their skills. Individuals can become more productive as managers and workers by investing in themselves.

Promoting Efficiency

In many instances, capital is valuable to promote efficiency because it can be used to purchase tools, equipment, materials, and labor. If such resources are used effectively, they can save time.

Promoting Equality

Capital is also an incentive for equality because it provides opportunities for people to become more productive and self-reliant through education, job training, and entrepreneurial activities.

Promoting Stability

Capital is also a tool to reduce uncertainty in business decision-making. When there are uncertain future events, businesses can create hedges against risk by purchasing insurance or making contracts that impose penalties if the events do not occur as expected.

Conclusion

The main functions of capital are economic development, social security, investment in human capital, an incentive for productivity, innovation, social mobility, and political stability.

What Are the Benefits of Working Capital Management?

Working capital management is a field of finance in which companies and business owners decide how much money they need to maintain their operations while also considering the risk involved with available financing. Working capital management includes the processes and strategies that a company may use to ensure that it has enough income each month to cover its expenses, minus any excess cash flow.Here some benefits of capital management.

Improved Liquidity

The most obvious benefit of working capital management is improved liquidity, or a company’s ability to meet its short-term financial requirements. For example, in order to purchase needed raw materials, a company must have enough cash on hand; otherwise it will not be able to purchase the materials necessary to satisfy customer demand. Liquidity is closely tied to the business cycle and highly dependent on the requirements of customers and management’s short-term goals.

What Are the Benefits of Working Capital Management?

Improved Profitability

Improving a company’s profitability can result in an increase in its share price, greater dividends and more available credit. Improved profitability is often the result of increasing sales and reducing expenses; however, a company can improve its profitability by improving its working capital management. Improving working capital management can increase sales by allowing the business to pay for needed inventory on time, thereby allowing it to fill customer orders. It can also reduce expenses by allowing the business to more quickly pay its suppliers, which decreases the amount of time the company spends in debt.

Operational Efficiency

A company’s operational efficiency is its ability to produce its goods and services at the lowest possible cost. When a business improves its operating efficiency, it is able to increase profits by selling its products at lower prices than competitors. Improving operational efficiency can often be tied to increasing the company’s working capital management, since working capital management can affect a company’s cash flow. Improving cash flow allows a company to purchase inventory on time and pay suppliers without extending credit. These actions can enable a business to reduce its total costs and increase profits.

Continuous Assessment of Risk Although working capital management requires the company to acquire financing, financing also carries risk that a company must be prepared to assess on a continuous basis. A company can often improve its risk management by streamlining its operational processes and reducing the amount of time that the business spends in debt. The goal is to reduce the amount of time that a company’s cash flow is tied up in inventory, accounts receivable and accounts payable.

What Are the Benefits of Working Capital Management?

Better Control of Cash Flow and Working Capital

Working capital management often results in better control of cash flow and working capital. The key to effective working capital management is the flexibility of a company’s cash flow, including its ability to receive short-term and long-term financing. One useful tool for managers is the ability to increase sales by using operating income or net income to fund working capital needs. Another useful tool is the ability to decrease a company’s outflow of cash in the form of accounts receivable, since this reduces the amount of money that a company must borrow.

Improved Cash Flow Forecasting A benefit of working capital management is improved cash-flow forecasting, an important aspect of the business cycle. A company can often improve its forecasting by analyzing historical data, reviewing current conditions and studying industry trends. Analysis of historical data can help a company predict future cash-flow needs. For example, a company needs to understand its historical cash-flow needs during recessions and inflationary periods, so it can plan its working capital accounts appropriately.

Balanced Working Capital Allocation Working capital management can help ensure that a business has an adequate supply of working capital as well as adequate financing. A company needs to have enough cash on hand to purchase inventory, pay its suppliers and ensure that it can continue to operate. However, if a business has too much cash on hand or in accounts receivable, it may not be able to cover its total operating costs. Therefore, a business must strike a balance between the amount of working capital that it needs and the amount that it can afford provided by financing.

Summary

The working capital management plan can be a company’s greatest asset as in the right hands, it can be used to maintain consistency in the cost of production or distribution, maintain total control over both operating and financing activities and reduce operating expenses while increasing net income.key areas influence a company’s working capital management most: accurate cash flow forecasting, proper allocation of expenses across the board and utilization of the right type of lines of credit.

We believe that an effective working capital management plan is best managed by utilizing a series of forecasting tools that should, at one time or another, be used to make adjustments to the organization’s working capital needs in order to maintain financial stability during growth.

What Are Financial Liabilities?

Financial Liabilities are any debt that is owed to a third party. Credit card debt, student loans, and car payments are four popular examples of this type of liability. Currently, it is hard to avoid having financial liabilities because they are such a big part of most people’s lives. However, financial liabilities are usually undesirable and should be avoided if possible.

What Are Financial Liabilities?

The Main Types of Liabilities Are:

a. Direct Liabilities

These liabilities are those owed to one person (such as a car loan). They are one of the easiest things to eliminate because you don’t need to deal with a creditor or third party. You can pay off the balance on your own and take control of your life once again.

b. Indirect Liabilities

These are liabilities that belong to the company (such as company credit cards or an office lunch expense card). You can often get relief from these liabilities and have a better life. In this case, you have to deal with the company that owns the liability, but it is not always that difficult.

c. Reversed Indirect Liability

This indirect liability is suitable in some cases and nasty in others. For example, a mortgage on a house will lower your house payment and make it easier on you financially when you take out the loan. But, if you lose your job, have trouble affording the payments, or the value of your home decreases, the mortgage will no longer be beneficial to you—the reverse is true for an investment like stocks or real estate.

d. Non-recourse Liabilities

This type of liability is usually a loan with no built-in safety net if you cannot make the payments. It is almost always a secured loan; if you fail to pay it back, whatever collateral you give will be taken from you. If it’s a car loan, the vehicle will be repossessed. If it’s a home mortgage, the property will be foreclosed on.

e. Hybrid Liabilities

These liabilities are the combination of securities issued on top of debt or equity (such as stocks and bonds) to secure and market information on the company or asset itself. These securities, which can be traded like regular stocks and bonds, are similar to direct liabilities, such as bonds issued by local governments and corporations.

Once you know these liabilities, you must also understand how to deal with them.

What Are Financial Liabilities?

Deal With Financial Liabilities

a. Increase the Income

The first thing that you need to do is increase your income. Most people believe that all you can do is live with all your financial liabilities, but that is not true. First and foremost, it is possible to increase your income, so you don’t have to live with this stressor. You can even take an entirely new job if you are interested in doing so.

b. Reduce the Expenses

Once you have increased your income, you should be able to use this money to reduce your expenses. This means you don’t need to live with the stress of having many financial liabilities. Also, the more expenses you can get rid of, the better your life will be.

c. Pay off the Liability Using a Cash Flow Technique

This is usually very hard for most people because, in most cases, there isn’t enough money coming in to pay for all of these liabilities at once. It would help if you took charge of your finances. You can do this by using a cash flow technique such as the snowball or debt avalanche method. While it does take a lot of time to get rid of all your financial liabilities, these techniques are known for paying off debts quickly and efficiently.

d. Make a budget

A budget can take control of your finances because you can use it to decide where your money should go. You can make a budget for anything from housing expenses to school tuition and even Christmas gifts.

e. Avoid Reckless Activities Such as Gambling and Drinking

You must see a doctor if you have a gambling problem or are abusing alcohol or other drugs. Get in touch with your local rehabilitation center if you are addicted to any of these activities and need help escaping your addiction. They consume a lot of money, and it is never wise to be addicted to something that costs so much.

f. Avoid Too Many Purchases that Cost a Lot of Money

If you are planning on purchasing something that costs a lot of money, consider whether you really need it. Take control of your life; don’t constantly engage in reckless activities, and don’t purchase anything that costs too much money (especially if you do not need it).

Final Verdict

The best way to avoid financial liabilities is by learning how to invest, manage your money better, and save for the future. And in time, you can build up a savings account and have some cash where you can live. However, you must know the difference between taking on and owning a liability. If you don’t feel you can manage your money well, it is best to work with a professional financial advisor who can help guide you in the right direction.

Posting Learning Resources at LPNTOBSN Online

At LPNTOBSN Online, we are dedicated to posting new resources to augment your learning experiences. Whether you are taking classes in person, or online only, we want to provide you with additional resources to help you along the way.

What we would like to draw your attention to is the various categories that we’ll be adding as we go. It is unknown at this time how many of these categories we’re going to be including. I’m almost certain that “Finance” or “Investments” might be among them. It is possible that you will see “Health” or “Fitness” as well. Maybe “Home Improvements,” “Sports,” “Cooking.” I think, at the end of the day, it’s going to be largely up to whatever happens to be grabbing the attention of the boss.

Hopefully you will discover something that you enjoy reading about here in our pages. Check back often, and bookmark the site!